Before a family consumes water, whether they drink it or use it otherwise, the family must guarantee that the water is clean. This process of cleaning water is also known as water purification. Most of the purified water is drinking water for humans to drink. However, people may purify water for other purposes. For example, water for medicines or water for factory production. Water comes from different places to purify it. For example, there is groundwater, surface water, seawater and sewage. One water purification process is faster than the other and one is also more expensive than the other. For example, you must first extract all the salt from sea water. This is an expensive process. Hence, most of the water that is purified is groundwater or surface water. Read on to learn the various ways to purify water.

Physical Processes

This is a natural process to purify water. Here they let the water rest for a while so that the large dirt sinks down and remains on the bottom. Experts also call this process sedimentation. Then the water is purified through a filter consisting of volcanic stones. Natural forces spread water on these stones and sinks through the stones. In between the stones, large dirt and pools of water collect for later use.

This is also a purification through a natural filter, namely a sand filter. The water flows from top to bottom through the sand bed. The sand stops all sediment larger than the grains of sand – such as flies and seeds. The sand is how to purify water the natural way.

Chemical Processes

In chemical processes, water treatment experts add one or more chemicals to the water. This causes very small particles to stick together. These glued particles then become bigger and then filters easily remove them. Water treatments also add chlorine to the water in this process – which purifies the water even more.

Electromagnetic Radiation

This is the last process of water purification. During this process, treatment plants expose the water to UV radiation for a long time. This process kills the smallest bacteria that are still in the water. Electromagnetic radiation is the least common type of treatment in this article.

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater treatment is the purification of wastewater from chemical substances. Sewage and wastewater largely originates in factories, which discharge wastewater into surface water such as rivers, lakes and seas. This dumping process leads to unclean surface water. Pollutes water disrupts the balance of nature and risks the life of the animals in that water. To prevent this, natural water sources need artificial water treatment. First, natural purification takes place through a filter. If a substance cannot break down through natural purification, then humans must apply chemical purification.

Seawater Purification

You can also purify sea water. This is a more difficult process than purifying groundwater or wastewater. The sea contains a large amount of salt and the process of removing salt from the water is called desalination. A desalination plant ensures that salt water is turned into fresh water. There are several ways to extract salt from sea water:


In this process, water is boiled to evaporate leaving only the salt. The evaporated water is then collected and converted back into normal water.

Reverse osmosis

This works similar as a filter. The water is pressed through a filter with pressure, so that the larger particles remain behind in the filter.


This has the same effect as reverse osmosis, only here the small salt particles are attracted by electric current. The salts are then retained, and the pure water remains for consumption.